Kotha-Baran

I'm building this language as part of the background for some fantasy and science-fiction stories I've got rolling around in my head.




Phonology

Kotha-Baran makes use of 24 letters (19 consonants and 5 vowels). Below are the letters or multi-character representations, the IPA equivalent, and an approximate pronunciation.

Kotha-Baran is written using the Nida-Baran glyphs. When using the glyphs, Kotha-Baran is written from left to right.


Letter(s) IPA Pronunciation
a [ɑ] as a in ball
b [b] as b in bet
ch [tʃ] as ch in chin
d [d] as d in dog
e [ɛ] as e in bet
f [f] as f in fit
g [g] as g in go
h [h] as h in hat
i [i] as ee in see
k [k] as k in kick
l [l] as l in line
m [m] as m in mat
Letter(s) IPA Pronunciation
n [m] as n in never
o [o] as o in no
p [p] as p in pig
r [r] as r in rat
s [s] as s in see
sh [ʃ] as sh in worship
t [t] as t in top
th [θ] as th in thin
u [u] as oo in too
v [v] as v in vine
z [z] as z in zero
zh [ʒ] as s in measure


Word Order

A simple sentence has three main parts, the subject (S), the verb (V) and the object (O).

Kotha-Baran uses a OSV word order. In a sentence containing more than one object, the objects may appear in any order.

Object (O)
The object of the sentence is the thing that the subject is doing something to. This is often a noun or a pronoun. There may be sentences that do not have an object. The object generally appears in the accusative case. Check the page on noun cases for further information about this.

Subject (S)
The subject is the thing in the sentence that is doing something. The subject is generally either a noun or a pronoun at least in simple sentences. The subject is always in the nominative case which is the base form of a noun or pronoun. This is also the form of the word that you find in the vocabulary.

Verb (V)
The verb denotes what is being done in the sentence. Verbs appear in the dictionary in the infinitive form but this form is generally not used in sentences. Verbs are instead inflected based on what the subject is, what the tense is or other things like mood and aspect.

The object of a sentence may be absent, such as in "state-of-being" sentences (ie. "I am tall").

The subject of a sentence may be absent, such as when the sentence would be written in the passive voice in English (ie. "The window had been broken"), or when the subject is intended to be generic (ie. "No swimming").

There may be additional words in between but the subject, object, and verb will always appear in this order relative to each other.




Modifiers

Modifiers are words that modify a verb, noun, other words, or a clause. In Kotha-Baran, modifiers immediately follow the word or clause they modify.

All modifiers end in a consonant

No modifiers may have a "a" or a "u" in the last syllable

A modifier can be made into a noun by adding "a"


All names in Kotha-Baran are modifiers for nouns.

Examples:

 Na-Maruk- (god) Maruk
 Na-Rashil- (god) Rashil
 Bera-Ronil- (village) Ronil
 Ha-Erek- (man) Erek




Number System

Kotha-Baran has words for numbers from one to ten, along with one hundred and one thousand. There is no word for zero and no separate set of symbols for the numerals.

Numbers:

All of the numbers have a suffix of "a" when used in counting (e.g. bisha, dosha, etc...) as they act there as nouns, but do not have the "a" when indicating quantity ("rola dosh" = "two stones"). Collectively, the names of the numbers are referred to as "rotha" or "the count".

 one (1) - bisha
 two (2) - dosha
 three (3) - kesha
 four (4) - kema
 five (5) - lena
 six (6) - dokesha
 seven (7) - nisha
 eight (8) - dokema
 nine (9) - mela
 ten (10) - dola

Note that, in numbers greater than ten, the "least significant" part of the number comes first (the lowest part of the number is at the front) - the digits are essentially presented in reverse order.

 eleven (11) - bisha zi dola ("one and ten")
 twelve (12) - dosha zi dola
 thirteen (13) - kesha zi dola
 fourteen (14) - kema zi dola
 fifteen (15) - lena kesh ("three fives")
 sixteen (16) - dokesha zi dola
 seventeen (17) - nisha zi dola
 eighteen (18) - mela kesh ("three nines")
 nineteen (19) - mela zi dola
 twenty (20) - dola dosh ("two tens")

 twenty-one (21) - bisha zi dola dosh
 twenty-two (22) - bisha zi dola dosh

(the numbers follow the consistent pattern here)

 thirty (30) - dola kesh
 forty (40) - dola kem

 ninety-nine (99) - mela zi dola mel
 one hundred (100) - kelena
 one hundred and one (101) - bisha zi kelena ("1 and 100")
 two hundred (200) - kela dosh
 two hundred and ten (210) - dola zi kelena dosh ("10 and 200")
 three hundred fifteen (315) - lena kesh zi kelena kesh ("three fives and three hundred")

 nine hundred and ninety nine (999) - mela zi dola mel zi kelena mel
 one thousand (1000) - thelena
 two thousand three hundred and fourteen (2314) - kema zi dola zi kelena kesh zi thelena dosh

Often, in common speech, the article "zi" is left out entirely:

 two hundred and ten (210) - dola kelena dosh
 three hundred fifteen (315) - lena kesh kelena kesh
 nine hundred and ninety nine (999) - mela dola mel kelena mel
 two thousand three hundred and fourteen (2314) - kema dola kelena kesh thelena dosh




Color Terms

In Kotha-Baran, color terms generally follow the object to which they apply.

Colors:

black - mol
white - zop
red - hol
blue - fin
yellow - nol
green - bef
brown - rev
orange - mir
pink - kob
purple - mez
gray - mem




Pronouns

 shaI, me
 kayou (singular)
 tahe, she, him, her, it
   
 shaiwe, us
 kaiyou (plural)
 taithey, them
   
 nahere, there




Nouns

All nouns end in "a"

All nouns in Kotha-Baran have an assumed definite article ("the"). If a noun is not intended to be specific then the indefinite article "tol" ("a") must immediately follow.

The case of a noun is indicated by appending one of the following suffixes to the noun in question:


Nominative
The Nominative case is the basic form of the noun. It is used when the noun is the subject of a sentence. The Nominative case is not marked, and is indicated only through word order.


Accusative
The Accusative case is when the noun appears as the object of a sentence. The Accusative case is marked with the suffix "-k".


Ablative
The Ablative case is used to denote movement away from the noun. The Ablative case is marked with the suffix "-n".


Dative
The Dative case is used to denote the noun to which something is given. The Dative case is marked with the suffix "-l".


Temporal
The Temporal case is used to denote the time frame for a noun (at the time of, for the duration of). The Temporal case is marked with the suffix "-r".


Locative
The Locativecase is used to denote the location of the object. The Locative case is marked with the suffix "-m".


Instrumental
The Instrumental case is used to indicate that a noun is the instrument or means by or with which the subject achieves or accomplishes an action. The Instrumental case is marked with the suffix "-b".


Genitive (ownership)
The Genitive case is the possessive case and is used when the noun is in possession of something. The Genitive case is marked with the suffix "-sh".


Intrinsic
The Intrinsic case is the possessive case and is used when the noun is in possession of something by virtue of it being an inseperable part of the noun. The Intrinsic case is marked with the suffix "-th".


Associational
The Associational case is the possessive case and is used when the noun is commonly associated with something. The Associational case is marked with the suffix "-ch".


Plurality is indicated by appending the suffix "-i" to the noun after any case suffixes.

Examples:

 dilathe child
 dilaithe children
 dilalito the children
 dilashithe children's (belonging to the children)

 tona shathmy arm
 tonai shathmy arms
 zocha shashmy house
 moga shachmy friend
 mogali shachto my friends

 tetharin the beginning, at the start

Questions
To create a question, append the appropriate case modifier to the interrogative marker "sho". This marker is then used in a sentence where the equivalent noun would be used.

 showho
 shokto whom/at whom
 sholfor whom/to whom
 shorwhen
 shomwhere
 shonfrom where
 shobwith what/using what
 shoshwho's (belonging to whom)
 shothwho's (a part of whom)
 shochwho's (associated with whom)




Verbs

All root verbs end in "u"

Any verb can be made into a root noun by adding "a". The resulting word can be translated as being a person or object that performs the action defined by the verb. The verb demu (survive) can therefore be made into the noun demua (survivor, or one who survives).


Verb Tense

Kotha-Baran indicates tense, aspect, and modality of a verb through the use of verb suffixes.

Present tense
The Present tense is the basic form of the verb. It is used when the action is occurring at the present time. The Present tense is not marked.

Past tense
The Past tense is used when the action occurred in the past. The Past tense is marked by the suffix "-s".

Future tense
The Future tense is used when the action has not yet occurred. The Future tense is marked by the suffix "-m".

Continuous aspect
The Continuous aspect is used to indicate an action that is or was in a state of continuing. The Continuous aspect is marked by the suffix "-l".

Irrealis mood
The Irrealis mood indicates that something is not actually the case, but is a potentiality. The Irrealis mood is marked by the suffix "-r".

The continuous aspect suffix can be combined with the tense suffix by adding a "u" after the "l", and then adding the tense marker.

If both the irrealis mood and the continuous aspect suffixes are to be used, the continuous aspect suffix comes first, followed by a "u" and then the irrealis mood suffix. The verbs always take the following form:

 (verb root)
 [(+"u") +l (Continuous aspect)]
 [(+"u") +r (Irrealis mood)]
 [+tense suffix]

Example:

 sha voshu= I speak
 sha voshul= I am speaking
 sha voshur= I might now speak
 sha voshulur= I might now be speaking

 sha voshus= I spoke
 sha voshulus= I was speaking
 sha voshurus= I might have spoken
 sha voshulurus= I might have been speaking

 sha voshum= I will speak
 sha voshulum= I will be speaking
 sha voshurum= I might speak
 sha voshulurum= I might be speaking


Negation
Negation is achieved in a sentence through the modifier "vol". This modifier follows the word that it negates.

Example:

 sha voshul vol= I'm not speaking
 sha voshus vol= I didn't speak
 sha vol voshulus= It wasn't I who was speaking


"To Be" Verbs
The functions of the English verb "to be" are separated into different verbs in Kotha-Baran. For assertions of existence the verb "zhu" is used. For statements of equivalence or inclusion in a category, the verb "shu" is used. For expression of physical states (angry, hungry, tired) the posessive is used. For statements which link the subject to an adjective compliment, the null marker verb "u" is used.

Example:

 sha zhu= I exist
 mogak tol sha shu= I am a friend
 torelak sha shonu= I am hungry (lit. "I have hunger")
 sha doreh u= I am tall




Conjunctions

The most commonly used conjunction in Kotha-Baran is "zi" ("and"). Its usage is very similar to that in English.

Example:

 mogai zi sodai sha lozu= I see the friends and the enemies
 sha bilus zi bosus = I ran and hid
 sha vonum zi ka chebum = I will buy and you will sell

The conjunction "zivol" acts kind of like the English word "or". It indicates that one or the other (or neither) of a pair of options is true, but not both.

 soma bilum zivol tebum = The beast will fight or run

Conditional statements are formulated using the conjunction "zin".

 soma bilum zin sha tebu= The beast will run if I fight




Kotha-Baran to English Glossary
bef (m) - green
beha (n) - work
behu (v) - work
belu (v) - kill
bera (n) - village
besosha (n) - dungeon
betu (m) - yellow
betu (v) - look
bihu (v) - hit
bilu (v) - run
bineva (n) - dram
bis (m) - free
bisa (n) - freedom
bish (m) - one
bisu (v) - free
biza (n) - head
bizh (m) - magical
bizha (n) - magic
boba (n) - university
bod (m) - directional
boda (n) - direction
bog (m) - great
boka (n) - crypt
bola (n) - feeling
bolu (v) - feel
bosha (n) - daughter
bosu (v) - hide
both (m) - dry
botha (n) - dryness
bothu (v) - dry
cheba (n) - sale
chebu (v) - sell
chelu (v) - do
chema (n) - spoon
chena (n) - foe
chesa (n) - attempt
chesu (v) - try
chifa (n) - lake
chil (m) - mercurial
chila (n) - silver
chima (n) - paradise
chir (m) - argumentative
chira (n) - argument
chiru (v) - argue
chis (m) - true
chisa (n) - truth
chisha (n) - inn
chobu (v) - come
choda (n) - pit
chofu (v) - blow
choga (n) - helmet
chok (m) - documented
choka (n) - document
choku (v) - document
chola (n) - boundary
choma (n) - farm
chomu (v) - farm
chona (n) - pot
chopa (n) - material
chor (m) - hellish
chora (n) - hell
chos (m) - active
chosa (n) - action
chosha (n) - ale
chosu (v) - act
chota (n) - war
choth (m) - here
chov (m) - lunar
chova (n) - moon
choza (n) - pub
deb (m) - fiendish
deba (n) - fiend
deh (m) - complete
deha (n) - completeness, ritual
dehu (v) - complete
dek (m) - deep
deka (n) - depth
deku (v) - deepen
del (m) - happy
dela (n) - happiness
dema (n) - survival
demu (v) - survive
denora (n) - gram
depa (n) - yoke
deru (v) - take
des (m) - intelligent
desa (n) - intelligence
desha (n) - axe
deza (n) - leaf
dich (m) - hateful
dicha (n) - hate
dichu (v) - hate
dila (n) - child
dilu (n) - children of mother's sister
dipa (n) - bow
diru (v) - put
disa (n) - attack
disu (v) - attack
dita (n) - plate
dob (m) - more
dof (m) - gigantic
dofa (n) - giant
doga (n) - barrel
doha (n) - door
dokem (m) - eight
dokesh (m) - six
doku (v) - learn
dol (m) - ten
dolu (m) - white
dom (m) - clean
doma (n) - cleanliness
domu (v) - clean
dop (m) - meaty
dopa (n) - meat
dora (n) - club
doreh (m) - tall
dos (m) - bodily
dosa (n) - body
dosh (m) - two
dosu (v) - embody
dotha (n) - food
dotu (v) - steal
dov (m) - conscious
dova (n) - consciousness
doza (n) - flail
dozh (m) - artistic
dozha (n) - art
dus (n) - children of father's brother
dym (n) - grandparent/elder
dyn (n) - grandchild/(term of endearment)
erim (n) - daughter
feh (m) - small, little
fel (m) - ugly
fela (n) - level
felu (v) - level
fer (m) - warm, hot
fera (n) - heat
feru (v) - warm, heat
fesa (n) - grain
feza (n) - era
fiba (n) - bone
fifa (n) - meal
fima (n) - trap
fimu (v) - entrap
fin (m) - blue
fis (m) - herbal
fisa (n) - herb
fish (m) - monstrous
fisha (n) - monster
foba (n) - plan
fobu (v) - plan
focha (n) - side
fog (m) - criminal
foga (n) - criminal
fol (m) - quick, fast
folina (n) - deer-like animal
foma (n) - land
fonu (v) - hold
for (m) - effective
fora (n) - effect
foru (v) - effect
foshu (v) - sing
fovu (v) - get
geka (n) - movement
geku (v) - move
gema (n) - engine
gena (n) - window, door
genun (m) - red
gera (n) - armor
geru (v) - protect
geta (n) - raft
gib (m) - far
giga (n) - paper, office
gira (n) - rule
giru (v) - rule
githa (n) - tent
gocha (n) - tavern
gofa (n) - lock
gofu (v) - lock
goga (n) - basket
gok (m) - any
goma (n) - connection
gomu (v) - connect
gopa (n) - subject
gos (m) - causal
gosa (n) - cause
gosh (m) - all
gosu (v) - cause
gova (n) - song
ha (m) - human
heb (m) - beautiful
heba (n) - beauty
hebu (v) - beautify
hecha (n) - change
hechu (v) - change
hef (m) - characteristic
hefa (n) - character
heku (v) - stay
hez (m) - like
heza (n) - likeness
hezha (n) - saddle
hezhu (v) - saddle
hezu (v) - liken
hiba (n) - track
hih (m) - inky
hiha (n) - ink
hima (n) - diamond
hinu (v) - brew
hiz (m) - healthy
hiza (n) - health
hizu (v) - heal
hoba (n) - port
hofa (n) - name
hofu (v) - name
hoga (n) - soup
hoh (m) - every
hola (n) - blood
homa (n) - ladder
hopa (n) - question
hopu (v) - ask
hovu (v) - go
hoza (n) - shield
hozu (v) - shield
ilus (n) - son
kechu (v) - walk
keda (n) - net
kega (n) - flight
kegu (v) - fly
keha (n) - idea
kela (n) - gate
kelen (m) - one hundred
kem (m) - four
kena (n) - chalk
kep (m) - disciplined
kepa (n) - discipline
kepu (v) - discipline
keru (v) - summon, invoke, create
kesh (m) - three
ketha (n) - thought
kethu (v) - think
kezu (v) - wrap
kiga (n) - sound
kihu (v) - become
kik (m) - fair
kika (n) - fairness
kizha (n) - pole
kizu (v) - drink
koba (n) - apple-like fruit, the tree on which the koba fruit grows
kocha (n) - prison
kochu (v) - imprison
kofa (n) - stream
koga (n) - liter
koh (m) - most
kohu (v) - find
kosa (n) - spark
kosha (n) - claw
kotha (n) - language
koza (n) - eye
kozh (m) - correct
kozha (n) - correction
kozhu (v) - correct
leba (n) - word
leku (v) - stand
len (m) - five
leru (v) - enlighten
leth (m) - entertaining
letha (n) - entertainment
lethu (v) - entertain
leza (n) - coin
lezha (n) - rope
lib (m) - good
liba (n) - goodness
lida (n) - story
liha (n) - candle
lila (n) - a tree with fiberous bark, cloth made from lila bark
lin (m) - sweet
lira (n) - master
lita (n) - business
litha (n) - star
liza (n) - weapon
locha (n) - gem
loha (n) - hole
loka (n) - boat
loma (n) - quantity
losu (v) - to give birth
lota (n) - copy
lotha (n) - shoe
lothu (v) - shoe
lotu (m) - green / blue
lotu (v) - copy
loza (n) - sight
lozha (n) - identification
lozhu (v) - identify
lozu (v) - see
meba (n) - sack
mecha (n) - bronze
med (m) - legal
meda (n) - law
medu (v) - legislate
meka (n) - emerald
mel (m) - nine
meloka (n) - day
mema (n) - iron
mena (n) - wagon
mera (n) - minute
mesh (m) - fruity
mesha (n) - fruit
mesu (v) - come
meta (n) - hook
metha (n) - garment
metu (v) - hook
meza (n) - wine
mezha (n) - steel
micha (n) - soap
mifa (n) - bread
mil (m) - kind
mila (n) - fang
mima (n) - source
mimu (n) - sister
mira (n) - copper
misha (n) - root
moba (n) - beer
mocha (n) - sail
mochu (v) - sail
moda (n) - package
mofa (n) - snare
mofu (v) - ensnare
mog (m) - friendly
moga (n) - friend
mogu (v) - befriend
mok (m) - close
mol (m) - black
mola (n) - blackness
molu (v) - blacken
momu (v) - sterilize
mopu (v) - devour
mora (n) - moss
mosa (n) - shop
moshu (v) - lead
mota (n) - brick
mova (n) - sword
moza (n) - building
mozh (m) - informational
mozha (n) - information
mozhu (v) - inform
mozu (n) - build
mus (n) - brother
na (n) - god
nam (m) - godly
nefa (n) - edge
nel (m) - eastern
nela (n) - east
nema (n) - rodent
nera (n) - year
nereth (m) - bitter
nesa (n) - catch
nesu (v) - catch
netha (n) - machine
nezha (n) - idol
nezhu (v) - idolize
nida (n) - map, glyph
nim (m) - silent
nima (n) - silence
nimu (v) - silence
nisa (n) - wood
nish (m) - seven
nismira (n) - copperwood tree or the wood from that tree
noba (n) - hammer
nodu (v) - help
nofa (n) - way
noh (m) - dangerous
noha (n) - danger
nohu (v) - endanger
nok (m) - long
noka (n) - length
noku (v) - lengthen
nol (m) - bright
nola (n) - light
nolu (v) - light
nor (m) - sour
nos (m) - wet
nosa (n) - water
noshu (v) - swim
noz (m) - colored
noza (n) - color
nozu (v) - color
pecha (n) - order
pechu (v) - order
pel (m) - militaristic
pela (n) - military
pelila (n) - army
pelu (v) - militarize
pepa (n) - issue
petha (n) - ivory
pezha (n) - wife
pida (n) - sapphire
pik (m) - leaden
pika (n) - lead
pipa (n) - cart
pira (n) - sky
piva (n) - butter
pocha (n) - bird
pofa (n) - spear
pog (m) - moral
poga (n) - moral
pogu (v) - moralize
poh (m) - firey
poha (n) - fire
pohu (v) - burn
poka (n) - growth
poku (v) - grow
poma (n) - bucket
pona (n) - chest or box
pora (n) - spindle
posha (n) - flame
poshola (n) - ember
poshu (v) - inflame
potha (n) - scale
pov (m) - evil
pova (n) - evil
reb (m) - broken
rebu (v) - break
rech (m) - below
rehu (v) - laugh
rek (m) - coastal
reka (n) - coast
rel (m) - empty
relu (v) - empty
rena (n) - sea
repa (n) - plant, weed
rer (m) - familial
rera (n) - family
res (m) - local
resa (n) - location
resh (m) - dead
resha (n) - death
reshova (n) - cinder, ash
reshu (v) - die
resu (v) - locate
ret (m) - full
reta (n) - fullness
retu (v) - fill
rev (m) - dirty
reva (n) - dirt
rezha (n) - tooth
rid (m) - frightful
ridu (v) - frighten
rih (m) - careful
rilu (v) - make
rima (n) - tool
rin (m) - fishy
rina (n) - fish
ripu (v) - stop
riva (n) - son
rob (m) - future
roch (m) - metallic
rocha (n) - metal
rod (m) - balanced
roda (n) - balance
rodu (v) - balance
rofa (n) - eon
roga (n) - spouse
roha (n) - occurance
rohu (v) - occur
rola (n) - stone
roma (n) - husband
rona (n) - ounce
rop (m) - high
ropa (n) - height
roshu (v) - repair
rota (n) - meter
rothu (v) - count
rova (n) - torch
rozu (v) - buzz
secha (n) - overlord
segu (v) - lead
sema (n) - group
semu (v) - group
sera (n) - berry
serzoba (n) - whiteberry tree or the fruit from that tree
seva (n) - excrement
shanu (v) - keep
sheg (m) - futuristic
shega (n) - future
shek (m) - interesting
sheka (n) - interest
sheku (v) - interest
shelu (v) - read
shepa (n) - weather
shera (n) - demon
sheza (n) - flint
shib (m) - less
shida (n) - ruby
shifa (n) - size
shik (m) - animalistic
shika (n) - animal
shin (m) - golden
shina (n) - gold
shiru (v) - become one
shis (m) - exemplary
shisa (n) - example
shisu (v) - exemplify
shizh (m) - important
shizha (n) - importance
shizu (v) - give
shob (m) - centennial
shoba (n) - century
shod (m) - eternal
shoda (n) - eternity
shoga (n) - wind, breeze
shola (n) - town
shonu (v) - have
shora (n) - flower
shosa (n) - goal
shozua (n) - immortal
shu (v) - to be
sidu (v) - follow
sifa (n) - backpack
sigu (v) - crush
sik (m) - final
sika (n) - end
siku (v) - finish
sil (m) - dark
sila (n) - darkness
silu (v) - darken
sin (m) - only
sip (m) - mirrored
sipa (n) - mirror
sisha (n) - belt
sob (m) - ceramic
soba (n) - ceramic
socha (n) - slave
sochu (v) - enslave
soda (n) - enemy
soh (m) - lovingly
soha (n) - love
sohu (v) - love
sok (m) - fatherly
soka (n) - father
soku (v) - father
solu (v) - climb
som (m) - beastly
soma (n) - beast
son (m) - hurtful
sona (n) - hurt
sonu (v) - hurt
sopa (n) - chronometer
sosa (n) - ship
sosha (n) - room
sota (n) - tin
tebu (v) - fight
tef (m) - certain
tefa (n) - certainty
tefeha (n) - shrub
teh (m) - additionally
teha (n) - addition
tehu (v) - add
tek (m) - historic
teka (n) - history
tela (n) - quality
tema (n) - desire, want
temu (v) - desire, want
tenoha (n) - moose-like animal
tenu (v) - win, succeed
tepa (n) - tree
tesha (n) - forest
teta (n) - shape
tetha (n) - start
tethu (v) - start
tetu (v) - shape
tezha (n) - staff
theh (m) - large
theha (n) - largeness
thehu (v) - enlarge
thelen (m) - one thousand
thelera (n) - city
thena (n) - scroll
thesa (n) - project
thezha (n) - jaw
thiba (n) - lantern
thida (n) - identity
thila (n) - knife, thorn
thina (n) - area
thip (m) - affirmative
thipa (n) - affirmation
thipu (v) - affirm
thocha (n) - vegetable
thoda (n) - chain
thoga (n) - path
thola (n) - ground
thona (n) - bottle
thota (n) - desert
thotha (n) - sling
thov (m) - cheesy
thova (n) - cheese
thoza (n) - whip
tiba (n) - salt
ticha (n) - cut
tichu (v) - cut
tila (n) - ball
tina (n) - cloth
tipa (n) - spell
tira (n) - river
tisa (n) - meeting
tish (m) - lower
tisu (v) - meet
titha (n) - dart
tob (m) - central
toba (n) - center
tobu (v) - center
tog (m) - least
toha (n) - bell
tol (det) - a
toma (n) - blanket
tona (n) - arm
torela (n) - hunger
toshu (v) - happen
tova (n) - furniture
tozh (m) - above
uhun (n) - father's brother
ulas (n) - father
umib (n) - mother
umud (n) - mother's sister
veb (m) - economical
veba (n) - economy
vebu (v) - economize
vel (m) - fake
vifa (n) - border
viha (n) - choice
vihu (v) - choose
vika (n) - spirit
vip (m) - knowledgeable
vipa (n) - knowledge
vipu (v) - know
viru (v) - hear
visha (n) - spirit
vitu (v) - understand
viza (n) - egg
voba (n) - garden
voch (m) - mature
vocha (n) - maturity
vochu (v) - mature
voka (n) - force
voku (v) - force
vol (m) - not
vola (n) - nothing
volu (v) - negate
vona (n) - purchase
vonu (v) - buy
vor (m) - lively
vora (n) - life
vorena (n) - wolf-like animal
voru (v) - live
vosh (m) - spoken
vosha (n) - speech
voshu (v) - speak
vosu (v) - run
voz (m) - dependent
voza (n) - dependency
ynug (m) - black
zeba (n) - faith
zeda (n) - nut
zegu (v) - eat
zeh (m) - managerial
zehu (v) - manage
zel (m) - false
zem (m) - factual
zema (n) - fact
zena (n) - ration
zenu (v) - ration
zep (m) - dim
zepa (n) - dimness
zera (n) - clothing
zeru (v) - clothe
zesha (n) - answer
zeshu (v) - answer
zez (m) - hilly
zeza (n) - hill
zha (n) - thing, something
zhecha (n) - scabbard
zheda (n) - leg
zhen (m) - destructive
zhena (n) - destruction
zhenu (v) - destroy
zheru (v) - permit
zhet (m) - left
zhifa (n) - mace
zhiga (n) - valley
zhima (n) - ocean
zhizha (n) - pen
zhoba (n) - sickle
zhof (m) - leathery
zhofa (n) - leather
zhoh (m) - foul
zhoha (n) - foulness
zhosha (n) - glass
zhothida (n) - degree
zhov (m) - monetary
zhova (n) - money
zhu (v) - exist, be
zi (conj) - and
ziha (n) - island
zika (n) - game
ziku (v) - play
zil (m) - around
zila (n) - surroundings
zilu (v) - surround
zim (m) - dutiful
zima (n) - duty
zin (conj) - if and only if
zina (n) - condition
zip (m) - millennial
zipa (n) - millennium
zira (n) - sitting
ziru (v) - sit
zoba (n) - corpse
zocha (n) - house
zochu (v) - house
zoda (n) - needle
zoga (n) - whistle
zogu (v) - whistle
zok (m) - able
zoka (n) - ability
zoku (v) - enable
zol (m) - faint
zom (conj) - or
zop (m) - white
zora (n) - quiver
zoshu (v) - suffer
zota (n) - loss
zotu (v) - lose
zozha (n) - rock

English to Kotha-Baran Glossary
a (det) - tol
a tree with fiberous bark (n) - lila
ability (n) - zoka
able (m) - zok
above (m) - tozh
act (v) - chosu
action (n) - chosa
active (m) - chos
add (v) - tehu
addition (n) - teha
additionally (m) - teh
affirm (v) - thipu
affirmation (n) - thipa
affirmative (m) - thip
ale (n) - chosha
all (m) - gosh
and (conj) - zi
animal (n) - shika
animalistic (m) - shik
answer (n) - zesha
answer (v) - zeshu
any (m) - gok
apple-like fruit (n) - koba
area (n) - thina
argue (v) - chiru
argument (n) - chira
argumentative (m) - chir
arm (n) - tona
armor (n) - gera
army (n) - pelila
around (m) - zil
art (n) - dozha
artistic (m) - dozh
ash (n) - reshova
ask (v) - hopu
attack (n) - disa
attack (v) - disu
attempt (n) - chesa
axe (n) - desha
backpack (n) - sifa
balance (n) - roda
balance (v) - rodu
balanced (m) - rod
ball (n) - tila
barrel (n) - doga
basket (n) - goga
be (v) - zhu
beast (n) - soma
beastly (m) - som
beautiful (m) - heb
beautify (v) - hebu
beauty (n) - heba
become (v) - kihu
become one (v) - shiru
beer (n) - moba
befriend (v) - mogu
bell (n) - toha
below (m) - rech
belt (n) - sisha
berry (n) - sera
bird (n) - pocha
bitter (m) - nereth
black (m) - ynug
blacken (v) - molu
blackness (n) - mola
blanket (n) - toma
blood (n) - hola
blow (v) - chofu
blue (m) - fin
boat (n) - loka
bodily (m) - dos
body (n) - dosa
bone (n) - fiba
border (n) - vifa
bottle (n) - thona
boundary (n) - chola
bow (n) - dipa
bread (n) - mifa
break (v) - rebu
breeze (n) - shoga
brew (v) - hinu
brick (n) - mota
bright (m) - nol
broken (m) - reb
bronze (n) - mecha
brother (n) - mus
bucket (n) - poma
build (n) - mozu
building (n) - moza
burn (v) - pohu
business (n) - lita
butter (n) - piva
buy (v) - vonu
buzz (v) - rozu
candle (n) - liha
careful (m) - rih
cart (n) - pipa
catch (n) - nesa
catch (v) - nesu
causal (m) - gos
cause (n) - gosa
cause (v) - gosu
centennial (m) - shob
center (n) - toba
center (v) - tobu
central (m) - tob
century (n) - shoba
ceramic (m) - sob
ceramic (n) - soba
certain (m) - tef
certainty (n) - tefa
chain (n) - thoda
chalk (n) - kena
change (n) - hecha
change (v) - hechu
character (n) - hefa
characteristic (m) - hef
cheese (n) - thova
cheesy (m) - thov
chest or box (n) - pona
child (n) - dila
children of father's brother (n) - dus
children of mother's sister (n) - dilu
choice (n) - viha
choose (v) - vihu
chronometer (n) - sopa
cinder (n) - reshova
city (n) - thelera
claw (n) - kosha
clean (m) - dom
clean (v) - domu
cleanliness (n) - doma
climb (v) - solu
close (m) - mok
cloth (n) - tina
cloth made from lila bark (n) - lila
clothe (v) - zeru
clothing (n) - zera
club (n) - dora
coast (n) - reka
coastal (m) - rek
coin (n) - leza
color (n) - noza
color (v) - nozu
colored (m) - noz
come (v) - mesu
complete (m) - deh
complete (v) - dehu
completeness (n) - deha
condition (n) - zina
connect (v) - gomu
connection (n) - goma
conscious (m) - dov
consciousness (n) - dova
copper (n) - mira
copperwood tree or the wood from that tree (n) - nismira
copy (n) - lota
copy (v) - lotu
corpse (n) - zoba
correct (m) - kozh
correct (v) - kozhu
correction (n) - kozha
count (v) - rothu
create (v) - keru
criminal (m) - fog
criminal (n) - foga
crush (v) - sigu
crypt (n) - boka
cut (n) - ticha
cut (v) - tichu
danger (n) - noha
dangerous (m) - noh
dark (m) - sil
darken (v) - silu
darkness (n) - sila
dart (n) - titha
daughter (n) - erim
day (n) - meloka
dead (m) - resh
death (n) - resha
deep (m) - dek
deepen (v) - deku
deer-like animal (n) - folina
degree (n) - zhothida
demon (n) - shera
dependency (n) - voza
dependent (m) - voz
depth (n) - deka
desert (n) - thota
desire (n) - tema
desire (v) - temu
destroy (v) - zhenu
destruction (n) - zhena
destructive (m) - zhen
devour (v) - mopu
diamond (n) - hima
die (v) - reshu
dim (m) - zep
dimness (n) - zepa
direction (n) - boda
directional (m) - bod
dirt (n) - reva
dirty (m) - rev
discipline (n) - kepa
discipline (v) - kepu
disciplined (m) - kep
do (v) - chelu
document (n) - choka
document (v) - choku
documented (m) - chok
door (n) - gena
dram (n) - bineva
drink (v) - kizu
dry (m) - both
dry (v) - bothu
dryness (n) - botha
dungeon (n) - besosha
dutiful (m) - zim
duty (n) - zima
east (n) - nela
eastern (m) - nel
eat (v) - zegu
economical (m) - veb
economize (v) - vebu
economy (n) - veba
edge (n) - nefa
effect (n) - fora
effect (v) - foru
effective (m) - for
egg (n) - viza
eight (m) - dokem
ember (n) - poshola
embody (v) - dosu
emerald (n) - meka
empty (m) - rel
empty (v) - relu
enable (v) - zoku
end (n) - sika
endanger (v) - nohu
enemy (n) - soda
engine (n) - gema
enlarge (v) - thehu
enlighten (v) - leru
enslave (v) - sochu
ensnare (v) - mofu
entertain (v) - lethu
entertaining (m) - leth
entertainment (n) - letha
entrap (v) - fimu
eon (n) - rofa
era (n) - feza
eternal (m) - shod
eternity (n) - shoda
every (m) - hoh
evil (m) - pov
evil (n) - pova
example (n) - shisa
excrement (n) - seva
exemplary (m) - shis
exemplify (v) - shisu
exist (v) - zhu
eye (n) - koza
fact (n) - zema
factual (m) - zem
faint (m) - zol
fair (m) - kik
fairness (n) - kika
faith (n) - zeba
fake (m) - vel
false (m) - zel
familial (m) - rer
family (n) - rera
fang (n) - mila
far (m) - gib
farm (n) - choma
farm (v) - chomu
fast (m) - fol
father (n) - ulas
father (v) - soku
father's brother (n) - uhun
fatherly (m) - sok
feel (v) - bolu
feeling (n) - bola
fiend (n) - deba
fiendish (m) - deb
fight (v) - tebu
fill (v) - retu
final (m) - sik
find (v) - kohu
finish (v) - siku
fire (n) - poha
firey (m) - poh
fish (n) - rina
fishy (m) - rin
five (m) - len
flail (n) - doza
flame (n) - posha
flight (n) - kega
flint (n) - sheza
flower (n) - shora
fly (v) - kegu
foe (n) - chena
follow (v) - sidu
food (n) - dotha
force (n) - voka
force (v) - voku
forest (n) - tesha
foul (m) - zhoh
foulness (n) - zhoha
four (m) - kem
free (m) - bis
free (v) - bisu
freedom (n) - bisa
friend (n) - moga
friendly (m) - mog
frighten (v) - ridu
frightful (m) - rid
fruit (n) - mesha
fruity (m) - mesh
full (m) - ret
fullness (n) - reta
furniture (n) - tova
future (m) - rob
future (n) - shega
futuristic (m) - sheg
game (n) - zika
garden (n) - voba
garment (n) - metha
gate (n) - kela
gem (n) - locha
get (v) - fovu
giant (n) - dofa
gigantic (m) - dof
give (v) - shizu
glass (n) - zhosha
glyph (n) - nida
go (v) - hovu
goal (n) - shosa
god (n) - na
godly (m) - nam
gold (n) - shina
golden (m) - shin
good (m) - lib
goodness (n) - liba
grain (n) - fesa
gram (n) - denora
grandchild/(term of endearment) (n) - dyn
grandparent/elder (n) - dym
great (m) - bog
green (m) - bef
green / blue (m) - lotu
ground (n) - thola
group (n) - sema
group (v) - semu
grow (v) - poku
growth (n) - poka
hammer (n) - noba
happen (v) - toshu
happiness (n) - dela
happy (m) - del
hate (n) - dicha
hate (v) - dichu
hateful (m) - dich
have (v) - shonu
head (n) - biza
heal (v) - hizu
health (n) - hiza
healthy (m) - hiz
hear (v) - viru
heat (n) - fera
heat (v) - feru
height (n) - ropa
hell (n) - chora
hellish (m) - chor
helmet (n) - choga
help (v) - nodu
herb (n) - fisa
herbal (m) - fis
here (m) - choth
hide (v) - bosu
high (m) - rop
hill (n) - zeza
hilly (m) - zez
historic (m) - tek
history (n) - teka
hit (v) - bihu
hold (v) - fonu
hole (n) - loha
honey (n) - shola
hook (n) - meta
hook (v) - metu
hot (m) - fer
house (n) - zocha
house (v) - zochu
human (m) - ha
hunger (n) - torela
hurt (n) - sona
hurt (v) - sonu
hurtful (m) - son
husband (n) - roma
idea (n) - keha
identification (n) - lozha
identify (v) - lozhu
identity (n) - thida
idol (n) - nezha
idolize (v) - nezhu
if and only if (conj) - zin
immortal (n) - shozua
importance (n) - shizha
important (m) - shizh
imprison (v) - kochu
inflame (v) - poshu
inform (v) - mozhu
information (n) - mozha
informational (m) - mozh
ink (n) - hiha
inky (m) - hih
inn (n) - chisha
intelligence (n) - desa
intelligent (m) - des
interest (n) - sheka
interest (v) - sheku
interesting (m) - shek
invoke (v) - keru
iron (n) - mema
island (n) - ziha
issue (n) - pepa
ivory (n) - petha
jaw (n) - thezha
keep (v) - shanu
kill (v) - belu
kind (m) - mil
knife (n) - thila
know (v) - vipu
knowledge (n) - vipa
knowledgeable (m) - vip
ladder (n) - homa
lake (n) - chifa
land (n) - foma
language (n) - kotha
lantern (n) - thiba
large (m) - theh
largeness (n) - theha
laugh (v) - rehu
law (n) - meda
lead (n) - pika
lead (v) - segu
leaden (m) - pik
leaf (n) - deza
learn (v) - doku
least (m) - tog
leather (n) - zhofa
leathery (m) - zhof
left (m) - zhet
leg (n) - zheda
legal (m) - med
legislate (v) - medu
length (n) - noka
lengthen (v) - noku
less (m) - shib
level (m) - fel
level (n) - fela
level (v) - felu
life (n) - vora
light (n) - nola
light (v) - nolu
like (m) - hez
liken (v) - hezu
likeness (n) - heza
liter (n) - koga
little (m) - feh
live (v) - voru
lively (m) - vor
local (m) - res
locate (v) - resu
location (n) - resa
lock (n) - gofa
lock (v) - gofu
long (m) - nok
look (v) - betu
lose (v) - zotu
loss (n) - zota
love (n) - soha
love (v) - sohu
lovingly (m) - soh
lower (m) - tish
lunar (m) - chov
mace (n) - zhifa
machine (n) - netha
magic (n) - bizha
magical (m) - bizh
make (v) - rilu
manage (v) - zehu
managerial (m) - zeh
map (n) - nida
master (n) - lira
material (n) - chopa
mature (m) - voch
mature (v) - vochu
maturity (n) - vocha
meal (n) - fifa
meat (n) - dopa
meaty (m) - dop
meet (v) - tisu
meeting (n) - tisa
mercurial (m) - chil
metal (n) - rocha
metallic (m) - roch
meter (n) - rota
militaristic (m) - pel
militarize (v) - pelu
military (n) - pela
millennial (m) - zip
millennium (n) - zipa
minute (n) - mera
mirror (n) - sipa
mirrored (m) - sip
monetary (m) - zhov
money (n) - zhova
monster (n) - fisha
monstrous (m) - fish
moon (n) - chova
moose-like animal (n) - tenoha
moral (m) - pog
moral (n) - poga
moralize (v) - pogu
more (m) - dob
moss (n) - mora
most (m) - koh
mother (n) - umib
mother's sister (n) - umud
move (v) - geku
movement (n) - geka
name (n) - hofa
name (v) - hofu
needle (n) - zoda
negate (v) - volu
net (n) - keda
nine (m) - mel
not (m) - vol
nothing (n) - vola
nut (n) - zeda
occur (v) - rohu
occurance (n) - roha
ocean (n) - zhima
office (n) - giga
one (m) - bish
one hundred (m) - kelen
one thousand (m) - thelen
only (m) - sin
or (conj) - zom
order (n) - pecha
order (v) - pechu
ounce (n) - rona
overlord (n) - secha
package (n) - moda
paper (n) - giga
paradise (n) - chima
path (n) - thoga
pen (n) - zhizha
permit (v) - zheru
pit (n) - choda
plan (n) - foba
plan (v) - fobu
plant (n) - repa
plate (n) - dita
play (v) - ziku
pole (n) - kizha
pond (n) - tipa
port (n) - hoba
pot (n) - chona
prison (n) - kocha
project (n) - thesa
protect (v) - geru
pub (n) - choza
purchase (n) - vona
put (v) - diru
quality (n) - tela
quantity (n) - loma
question (n) - hopa
quick (m) - fol
quiver (n) - zora
raft (n) - geta
ration (n) - zena
ration (v) - zenu
read (v) - shelu
red (m) - genun
repair (v) - roshu
ritual (n) - deha
river (n) - tira
rock (n) - zozha
rodent (n) - nema
room (n) - sosha
root (n) - misha
rope (n) - lezha
ruby (n) - shida
rule (n) - gira
rule (v) - giru
run (v) - vosu
sack (n) - meba
saddle (n) - hezha
saddle (v) - hezhu
sail (n) - mocha
sail (v) - mochu
sale (n) - cheba
salt (n) - tiba
sapphire (n) - pida
say (v) - voshu
scabbard (n) - zhecha
scale (n) - potha
scroll (n) - thena
sea (n) - rena
see (v) - lozu
sell (v) - chebu
seven (m) - nish
shape (n) - teta
shape (v) - tetu
shield (n) - hoza
shield (v) - hozu
ship (n) - sosa
shoe (n) - lotha
shoe (v) - lothu
shop (n) - mosa
shrub (n) - tefeha
sickle (n) - zhoba
side (n) - focha
sight (n) - loza
silence (n) - nima
silence (v) - nimu
silent (m) - nim
silver (n) - chila
sing (v) - foshu
sister (n) - mimu
sit (v) - ziru
sitting (n) - zira
six (m) - dokesh
size (n) - shifa
sky (n) - pira
slave (n) - socha
sling (n) - thotha
small (m) - feh
snare (n) - mofa
soap (n) - micha
something (n) - zha
son (n) - ilus
song (n) - gova
sound (n) - kiga
soup (n) - hoga
sour (m) - nor
source (n) - mima
spark (n) - kosa
speak (v) - voshu
spear (n) - pofa
speech (n) - vosha
spell (n) - tipa
spindle (n) - pora
spirit (n) - visha
spoken (m) - vosh
spoon (n) - chema
spouse (n) - roga
staff (n) - tezha
stand (v) - leku
star (n) - litha
start (n) - tetha
start (v) - tethu
stay (v) - heku
steal (v) - dotu
steel (n) - mezha
sterilize (v) - momu
stone (n) - rola
stop (v) - ripu
story (n) - lida
stream (n) - kofa
subject (n) - gopa
succeed (v) - tenu
suffer (v) - zoshu
summon (v) - keru
surround (v) - zilu
surroundings (n) - zila
survival (n) - dema
survive (v) - demu
sweet (m) - lin
swim (v) - noshu
sword (n) - mova
take (v) - deru
tall (m) - doreh
tavern (n) - gocha
ten (m) - dol
tent (n) - githa
the tree on which the koba fruit grows (n) - koba
thing (n) - zha
think (v) - kethu
thorn (n) - thila
thought (n) - ketha
three (m) - kesh
tin (n) - sota
to be (v) - shu
to give birth (v) - losu
tool (n) - rima
tooth (n) - rezha
torch (n) - rova
town (n) - shola
track (n) - hiba
trap (n) - fima
tree (n) - tepa
true (m) - chis
truth (n) - chisa
try (v) - chesu
two (m) - dosh
ugly (m) - fel
understand (v) - vitu
university (n) - boba
valley (n) - zhiga
vegetable (n) - thocha
village (n) - bera
wagon (n) - mena
walk (v) - kechu
want (n) - tema
want (v) - temu
war (n) - chota
warm (m) - fer
warm (v) - feru
water (n) - nosa
way (n) - nofa
weapon (n) - liza
weather (n) - shepa
weed (n) - repa
wet (m) - nos
whip (n) - thoza
whistle (n) - zoga
whistle (v) - zogu
white (m) - dolu
whiteberry tree or the fruit from that tree (n) - serzoba
wife (n) - pezha
win (v) - tenu
wind (n) - shoga
window (n) - gena
wine (n) - meza
wolf-like animal (n) - vorena
wood (n) - nisa
word (n) - leba
work (n) - beha
work (v) - behu
wrap (v) - kezu
year (n) - nera
yellow (m) - betu
yoke (n) - depa