Grundish (Grundok)

A toy language inspired by the Grundos from Neopets.




Phonology

Grundish makes use of 18 letters (12 consonants and 6 vowels). Below are the letters, the corresponding IPA symbol, and an approximate pronunciation.


Letter(s)  IPA  Pronunciation
d [d] as d in dog
f [f] as f in fit
g [g] as g in go
k [k] as k in kick
l [l] as l in line
m [m] as m in mat
n [n] as n in never
p [p] as p in pig
r [r] as r in rat
s [s] as s in see
sh [ʃ] as sh in worship
t [t] as t in top
Letter(s)  IPA  Pronunciation
a [ɑ] as a in ball
e [ɛ] as e in bet
ee [i] as ee in see
i [i] as ee in see at the end of words,
  [j] as i in tip everywhere else
o [ɔ]
as aw in saw
  [o] as o in bone
  [ɑ] as o in cot
u [ə] as u in abut

Irregular stress
Generally the first syllable of a word is stressed. Syllables with no vowels are unstressed in words of more than one syllable.




Word Order

A simple sentence has three main parts, the verb (V), the subject (S) and the object (O).

Grundish uses a VSO word order.

There may be additional words in between but the verb, subject, and object will always appear in this order relative to each other.

Verb (V)
The verb denotes what is being done in the sentence. Verbs appear in the dictionary in the infinitive form but this form is generally not used in sentences. Verbs are instead inflected based on what the subject is, what the tense is or other things like mood and aspect.

Subject (S)
The subject is the thing in the sentence that is doing something. The subject is generally either a noun or a pronoun at least in simple sentences. The subject is always in the nominative case which is the base form of a noun or pronoun. This is also the form of the word that you find in the vocabulary.

Object (O)
The object of the sentence is the thing that the subject is doing something to. This is often a noun or a pronoun. There may be sentences that do not have an object. The object generally appears in the accusative case. Check the section on noun cases for further information about this.




Modifiers

Modifiers are words that modify a verb, noun, other words, or a clause. In Grundish, modifiers immediately follow the word or clause they modify.

The grundo is happy. (English word order)
Is grundo the happy. (Grundish word order)
Gok grundo kplut. (Grundish)

One grundo is happy. (English word order)
Is grundo one happy. (Grundish word order)
Gok grundo eko kplut. (Grundish)




Number System

Grundish has seven modifiers that serve as number categories, and three additional words for indicating set inclusion. Grundos do not do math.

 eko- single, one
 ekek- a pair, two
 neeg- a few, 3-5
 eekli- several, 6-9
 pop- many, 10-14
 goreekt- a lot, 15-21
 neep- countless, more than 21

 neek - all
 endo - some
 nok - none




Color Terms

In Grundish, color terms immediately follow the object to which they apply.

 bleeg - blue, green
 brak - yellow, orange, beige
 ebli - silver, gold, metalic
 grakt - gray, brown
 kpleesh - white, unnatural light color
 narkt - black, unnatural dark color
 skreep - red, purple




Kinship Terms

The Grundish kinship system uses only three terms.

 kplak- parent
 slub- child
 blap- sibling

Other kinship relationships are sometimes expressed through combinations of the above. For example, "kplak-kplak" (parent-parent) for "grandparent" or "kplak-blap" (parent-sibling) for "aunt/uncle".




Pronouns

 eki- I, me
 eko- he, she, it, you
 ekli- we, us
 eklo- they, them
  ek - (resumptive pronoun)
  eebl - that, which (relative pronoun)
  eek - these, those, this, that (demonstative pronoun)


Relative Clause Construction

The noun gap in a relative clause must be filled with a resumptive pronoun.

The shirt (that) you want is on the table. (English word order)
Want you shirt the that is [it] on table the. (Grundish word order)
Goruk eko nableeg eeble gok ek gak flarg. (Grundish)




Nouns


Noun Case

Grundish indicates the roll of nouns (case) within a sentence through the use of post-positions which follow the noun.


Nominative
The Nominative case is the basic form of the noun. It is used when the noun is the subject of a sentence. The Nominative case is not marked, and is indicated only through word order.


Accusative
The Accusative case is when the noun appears as the object of a sentence. The Accusative case is not marked, and is indicated only through word order.


Ablative
The Ablative case is used to denote movement away from the noun. The Ablative case is marked with the preposition "pfut".


Dative
The Dative case is used to denote the noun to which something is given. The Dative case is marked with the preposition "gak".


Genitive
The Genitive case is the possessive case and is used when the noun is in possession of something. The Genitive case is marked with the preposition "gak".


Locative
The Locativecase is used to denote the location of the object. The Locative case is marked with the preposition "gak".


Instrumental
The Instrumental case is used to indicate that a noun is the instrument or means by or with which the subject achieves or accomplishes an action. The Instrumental case is marked with the preposition "gak".


Temporal
The Temporal case is used to denote the time frame for a noun (at the time of, for the duration of). The Temporal case is marked with the preposition "gak".


Noun Phrase Order

NDPAR [Noun - Determiner - Pronoun - Adjective - Relative (Adjectival) Clause]

Lack of a determiner is an assumed definite article (the)

Those big men who eat quiche run. (English word order)
Run man those [countless] big who eat [they] quiche. (Grundish word order)
Skeep gup eek neep garupt eeble nurg ek keesh. (Grundish)




Verbs

Grundish indicates tense, aspect, and modality of a verb through the use of auxiliaries which follow the verb.


Present tense
The Present tense is the basic form of the verb. It is used when the action is occurring at the present time. The Present tense is marked with the auxiliary "guf", though it is frequently omitted.


Past tense
The Past tense is used when the action occurred in the past. The Past tense is marked by the auxillary "guk", though it is sometimes omitted.


Future tense
The Future tense is used when the action has not yet occurred. The Future tense is marked by the auxillary "kug", though a marker for hypothetical mood is also required.


Hypothetical mood
The Hypothetical mood indicates that something is not actually the case, but is a potentiality. The Hypothetical mood is marked by the auxillary "keebl".


Imperative mood
The Imperative mood is used for direct commands and requests. The Imperative mood is marked with the auxiliary "skop".


Irrealis mood
The Irrealis mood indicates that something is not actually the case, but is a potentiality. The Irrealis mood is marked by the auxillary "bork".


Interrogative mood
The Interrogative mood is used for asking questions. The Interrogative mood is marked with the auxiliary "nop".


Bewilderment mood
The Bewilderment mood is used to express confusion about an assertion. It is also used on its own as an interjection to indicate a general state of confusion. The Bewilderment mood is marked with the auxiliary "greep".




Example sentences

The dog bit the boy. (English word order)
Bite did dog the boy the. (Grundish word order)
Snok guk pog gup. (Grundish)

Did the dog bite the boy? (English word order)
Bite did dog the boy the [interrogative]. (Grundish word order)
Snok guk pog gup nop. (Grundish)

The book is on the table. (English word order)
Is at table the book the. (Grundish word order)
Gok gak flarg kplog. (Grundish word order)

Did the boy who broke the window run away? (English word order)
Run from boy that break did he the window [interrogative]. (Grundish word order)
Ktapf pfut gup eebl grak guk eko eeree nop. (Grundish)

I hate reading technical manuals. (English word order)
Hate I that read do I manuals countless technical. (Grundish word order)
Spak eki eebl kplug guf eki kplog neep teegni. (Grundish)




Grundish to English Glossary
blap (n.) - sibling
bleeg (adj.) - blue, green
bork (aux.) - (negative)
bork (interj.) - no!
brak (adj.) - yellow, orange, beige
ebli (adj.) - silver, gold, metalic
eebl (pron.) - that, which
eek (pron.) - these, those, this, that
eekli (det.) - several
eeree (n.) - hole, door, window
ek (pron.) - (resumptive pronoun)
ekek (num.) - a pair, two
eki (pron.) - I, me
ekli (pron.) - we, us
eklo (pron.) - they, them
eko (num.) - single, one
eko (pron.) - he, she, it, you
endo (det.) - some
flarg (n.) - table, top surface
gak (prep.) - on, by, around, near, inside, at, with, owned by, to
garupt (adj.) - big
gok (v.) - exist
goreekt (det.) - a lot
goruk (v.) - want
grak (v.) - break
grakt (adj.) - gray, brown
greep (aux.) - (bewilderment), huh?
guf (aux.) - do
guk (aux.) - did
gup (n.) - person, dude
keebl (aux.) - (hypothetical)
keesh (n.) - quiche
kplak (n.) - parent
kpleesh (adj.) - white, unnatural light color
kplog (n.) - book
kplug (v.) - read
kplut (adj.) - happy
ktapf (v.) - run
kug (aux.) - will
nableeg (n.) - shirt
narkt (adj.) - black, unnatural dark color
neeg (det.) - a few
neek (det.) - all
neep (num.) - countless
nok (det.) - none
nop (aux.) - (interrogative)
nurg (v.) - eat
pft (interj.) - bah!
pfusk (n.) - fish
pfut (prep.) - from, down from, away from
pog (n.) - animal, dog
pop (num.) - many
skeep (v.) - run
skop (aux.) - (imperative)
skop (interj.) - yes!
skreep (adj.) - red, purple
slub (n.) - child
snok (v.) - bite
spak (v.) - hate
teegni (adj.) - technical

English to Grundish Glossary
(bewilderment) (aux.) - greep
(hypothetical) (aux.) - keebl
(imperative) (aux.) - skop
(interrogative) (aux.) - nop
(negative) (aux.) - bork
(resumptive pronoun) (pron.) - ek
I (pron.) - eki
a few (det.) - neeg
a lot (det.) - goreekt
a pair (num.) - ekek
all (det.) - neek
animal (n.) - pog
around (prep.) - gak
at (prep.) - gak
away from (prep.) - pfut
bah! (interj.) - pft
beige (adj.) - brak
big (adj.) - garupt
bite (v.) - snok
black (adj.) - narkt
blue (adj.) - bleeg
book (n.) - kplog
break (v.) - grak
brown (adj.) - grakt
by (prep.) - gak
child (n.) - slub
countless (num.) - neep
did (aux.) - guk
do (aux.) - guf
dog (n.) - pog
door (n.) - eeree
down from (prep.) - pfut
dude (n.) - gup
eat (v.) - nurg
exist (v.) - gok
fish (n.) - pfusk
from (prep.) - pfut
gold (adj.) - ebli
gray (adj.) - grakt
green (adj.) - bleeg
happy (adj.) - kplut
hate (v.) - spak
he (pron.) - eko
hole (n.) - eeree
huh? (aux.) - greep
inside (prep.) - gak
it (pron.) - eko
many (num.) - pop
me (pron.) - eki
metalic (adj.) - ebli
near (prep.) - gak
no! (interj.) - bork
none (det.) - nok
on (prep.) - gak
one (num.) - eko
orange (adj.) - brak
owned by (prep.) - gak
parent (n.) - kplak
person (n.) - gup
purple (adj.) - skreep
quiche (n.) - keesh
read (v.) - kplug
red (adj.) - skreep
run (v.) - skeep
several (det.) - eekli
she (pron.) - eko
shirt (n.) - nableeg
sibling (n.) - blap
silver (adj.) - ebli
single (num.) - eko
some (det.) - endo
table (n.) - flarg
technical (adj.) - teegni
that (pron.) - eek
that (pron.) - eebl
them (pron.) - eklo
these (pron.) - eek
they (pron.) - eklo
this (pron.) - eek
those (pron.) - eek
to (prep.) - gak
top surface (n.) - flarg
two (num.) - ekek
unnatural dark color (adj.) - narkt
unnatural light color (adj.) - kpleesh
us (pron.) - ekli
want (v.) - goruk
we (pron.) - ekli
which (pron.) - eebl
white (adj.) - kpleesh
will (aux.) - kug
window (n.) - eeree
with (prep.) - gak
yellow (adj.) - brak
yes! (interj.) - skop
you (pron.) - eko